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The best choice to improve your stallion fertility

The preservation of equine sperm cells under low temperatures is being a great tool to eliminate geographical barriers and spread the genetic material from high valuable breeding stallions worldwide. In this scenario, the sperm quality is crucial to achieve success in horses breeding.

Cooling and freezing sperm is only possible through the use of extenders, which provide protection to sperm challenged by low temperatures. Semen extenders contains:

  • buffers to maintain an ideal pH;
  • antioxidants to prevent the production of free radicals;
  • electrolytes to provide an optimum osmotic pressure;
  • sugars as a source of energy to the sperm motility;
  • antibiotics to avoid the sample contamination; 
  • milk or egg yolk to protect the spermatozoa against temperature changes;
  • cryoprotectants to limit the injuries to the sperm membranes. 

Stallion sperm are more susceptible to cold shock due to the plasma membrane composition. And some stallions produce sperm cells unable to tolerate the changes in temperature during the freeze-thaw process due to several factors such as poor seminal plasma, exacerbated oxidative stress and/or genetic predisposition. These horses are known as “bad coolers” or “bad freezers”, or considered producing “poor semen freezability”, for exhibiting a sudden drop in sperm motility or fertility rates after the cryopreservation process.

To improve stallions’ fertility, Botupharma developed an exclusive and complete line of sperm extenders, supporting sperm viability during cooling and freezing process. BotuSemen, BotuSemen Special, BotuSemen Gold, BotuTurbo and Botucrio extenders were all designed based on scientific researches and shows great results published in high-impact journals.


Composition: Skim milk powder UHT sterilized, sugars, amino acids, antioxidants, and excipients. 

Botusemen is a skimmed milk based extender, its formulation enables the safe transport of spermatozoa until the time of insemination or during the centrifugation process for freezing protocols. 

This extender is highly effective in maintain sperm motility and viability under low temperatures (Farrás et al., 2008). Botusemen has been proven to be the better choice for cooling stallion sperm from epididymis, since it presented greater values for spermatozoa progressive motility (Neuhauser et al., 2018).  


Composition: Skim milk powder UHT sterilized, sugars, amino acids, antioxidants, cholesterol, and excipients. 

Botusemen Special is an extender specially developed for stallions that are more susceptible to cold damage. The formula contains essential lipids, contributing to the plasma membrane stability during the cooling process. 

The cholesterol provides a higher protection to sperm cells under cold challenge. Botusemen Special has shown better kinetic parameters compared to extenders without lipids, besides to improve donkey sperm fertility cooled for up to 48 hours (Segabinazzi et al., 2021).  


Composition: Casein, sugars, amino acids, antioxidants, cholesterol, and excipients.

Botusemen Gold is an extender based on casein and cholesterol. Casein is a protein that interacts with calcium ions and prevents the detrimental effects of seminal plasma by binding to HSP proteins, reducing lipid loss from the plasma membrane. The unique combination of casein and cholesterol increases sperm membrane stability, preserving motility and viability during storage and cooling. Botusemen Gold increases the longevity and fertility rates of stallions’ semen.

Botusemen Gold extender demonstrated higher motility values for up to 48 cooling, besides to maintaining the sperm viability post warming. Cooled stallion sperm extended in Botusemen Gold and applied in in vitro fertilization provided a blastocysts recovery rate of 50% (Novello et al., 2020; Rečková et al., 2022).


Composition: Skim milk powder UHT sterilized, sugars, amino acids, antioxidants, pentoxifylline, and excipients. 

BotuTurbo is an extender developed to improve the vigor of slow-moving sperm. It is highly recommended for semen transport and artificial insemination for samples that requires a better sperm motility. 

BotuTurbo is enriched with pentoxifylline, a substance that increases sperm energy production, ameliorating the gamete motility and kinematic parameters (Rossi et al., 2020). Epididymal sperm recovered in BotuTurbo presented better results for total and progressive motility than the samples extended in diluent without pentoxifylline (Guasti et al., 2013). 


BotuCrio is an innovative freezing extender developed for stallion sperm cryopreservation. The formula was designed after long years of research, fertility trials and field tests. The extender aims to protect the stallion sperm from the cryodamage, as well as maintaining the post-thawing fertility. BotuCrio is most used extender for stallion sperm cryopreservation worldwide.

BotuCrio has been proven to be the best option to preserve stallion sperm kinematics post-thawing compared to others, since it shows highest values for total and progressive motility, straight linear velocity, average path velocity and curvilinear velocity (Snoeck et al., 2019). Using BotuCrio to cryopreserve sperm from stallion with poor freezability, contributes to higher kinetics rates on post-thaw analysis. BotuCrio provide better sperm cells protection from cryodamage due to its formula, enriched with amino acids, amides, and glycerol, that protects the sperm cells integrity (Ramires Neto et al., 2014). 

To achieve more information about the Botupharma Semen Extenders access the QR Code. 


Farrás, M. C., Avanzi, B. R., Melo, C. marini, Dell’Aqua, J. A., & Papa, F. O. (2008). Efeitos de diferentes diluentes na manutenção das características do sêmen equino em dois sistemas de refrigeração passiva. Ciência Animal Brasileira, 9(3), 693–699.

Guasti, P. N., Monteiro, G. A., Maziero, R. R., Martin, I., Avanzi, B. R., Dellaqua, J. A., & Papa, F. O. (2013). Effects of pentoxifylline on equine epididymal sperm. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 33(12), 1153–1156.

Neuhauser, S., Gösele, P., & Handler, J. (2018). The Effect of Four Different Commercial Semen Extenders on the Motility of Stallion Epididymal Sperm. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 62, 8–12.

Novello, G., Podico, G., Segabinazzi, L. G. T. M., Lima, F. S., & Canisso, I. F. (2020). Stallion Semen Cooling Using Native Phosphocaseinate-based Extender and Sodium Caseinate Cholesterol-loaded Cyclodextrin-based Extender. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 92.

Ramires Neto, C., Monteiro, G. A., Sancler-Silva, Y. F. R., Papa, P., Guasti, P. N., Resende, H. L., Papa, F. O., Dell`aqua, J. A., & Alvarenga, M. A. (2014). Comparison of different freezing extenders for semen cryopreservation from stallions with poor and good semen freezability. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 34(1), 58–60.

Rečková, Z., Filipčík, R., Soušková, K., Kopec, T., Hošek, M., & Pešan, V. (2022). The efficiency of different types of extenders for semen cooling in stallions. Animal Bioscience, 35(5), 670–676.

Rossi, M., Gonzalez-Castro, R., & Falomo, M. E. (2020). Effect of Caffeine and Pentoxifylline Added Before or After Cooling on Sperm Characteristics of Stallion Sperm. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 87.

Segabinazzi, L. G. T. M., Scheeren, V. F. da C., Freitas-Dell’Aqua, C. de P., Papa, F. O., Alvarenga, M. A., Dell’Aqua, J. A., & Canisso, I. F. (2021). Cholesterol-Loaded Cyclodextrin Addition to Skim Milk-Based Extender Enhances Donkey Semen Cooling and Fertility in Horse Mares. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 105.

Snoeck, P. P. das N., Pessoa, T. H. O., Pereira, M. G. S., Bastos, I. C. L., & de Melo, M. I. V. (2019). Can we use LDL instead of egg yolk in BotuCrio® extender to cryopreserve sperm from the Mangalarga Marchador stallion? Animal Reproduction, 16(2), 340–347.

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